Nd:YVO4 Crystals

Nd:YVO4 Crystals
Nd:YVO4 Crystals

Nd:YVO4 (Neodymium doped yttrium Vanadate) crystal is one of the most efficient laser host crystals for all-solid-state laser diode pumped lasers. Its large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength, high absorption coefficient and wide absorption bandwidth at pump wavelength, high laser induced damage threshold as well as good physical, optical and mechanical properties make it an excellent crystal for high power, stable and cost-effective diode pumped solid-state lasers.

Nd:YVO4 crystals with diffusion bonded undoped YVO4 endcaps are also available from Newlight Photonics. Please visit here

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Newlight's Nd:YVO4 features,

Low lasing threshold and high slope efficiency
Large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength
High absorption over a wide range of pumping wavelength
Large birefringence emitting polarized light
Low sensitivity to pumping wavelength variation

Basic Properties:

Atomic Density     1.26x1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd doping:1.0%)
Crystal Structure    Tetragonal, space group I41/amd 
 a=b=7.1193, c=6.2892
Density    4.22g/cm3
Melting Temperature 1825 oC
Mohs Hardness   4-5
Specific Heat @25oC  24.6 (cal/mol/K)
Thermal Expansion Coefficients (@300K)   αa=4.43x10-6/K
Thermal Conductivity Coefficients(@300K) //C: 5.23W/m/K
⊥C: 5.10W/m/K

Optical Properties:

Lasing Wavelength 1064.3nm, 1342nm
Thermo-optical Coefficient (@300K) dno/dT=8.5x10-6/K
Sellmeier Equations for Pure YVO4 crystals
( λ  in µm)
Refractive Index (@1064nm) no=1.958, ne=2.168
Stimulated Emission
Cross- section
25x10-19 cm2 @1064nm
Fluorescent Lifetime 95 µs
Peak absorption wavelength 808 nm
Absorption Coefficient (1% Nd) 22.8 cm-1 (E//c), 11.1 cm-1 (E//a) @ 808nm
Intrinsic Loss 0.02 cm-1 @ 1064nm
Gain Bandwidth 0.96nm @ 1064nm
Polarized Laser Emission Parallel to the optic axis (c-axis)

Laser Properties:

The Nd:YVO4 crystal has large stimulated emission cross-sections at both 1064nm and 1342nm. The stimulated emission cross-section of an a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal at 1064nm is about 4 times higher than that of the Nd:YAG crystal. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, the slope efficiency of a Nd:YVO4 laser can be very high if the laser cavity is properly designed thanks to its high pump quantum efficiency, . Table 1 lists the major laser properties of Nd:YVO4 in comparison with those of Nd:YAG. Table 2 gives the performance of a few examples of Nd:YVO4 lasers.

Table 1. Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4 in comparison with Nd:YAG  

Laser crystal  Doping
1.1 7 9.2 90 231 45.5
Nd:YAG  0.85 6 7.1 230 115 38.6


Table 2. Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser output compared with that of a Nd:YAG laser (Examples)

Crystals Size (mm3) Pump Power Output (@ 1064nm)
Nd:YVO4 3x3x1 850mW 350mW
Nd:YVO4 3x3x5 15W 6W
Nd:YAG 3x3x2 850mW 34mW


Specifications on finished Nd:YVO4:

Nd: Dopant Level 0.1 - 3.0% (Atomic Pencentage, atm%)
Wavefront Distortion < λ/4 per inch @ 633 nm
Scattering Sites Invisible when probed with a He-Ne laser
Orientation The propagation axis is along the a-axis (+/- 0.5deg.)
Dimensional Tolerance +/- 0.1mm
End-faces Configuration Plano/Plano
Surface Quality: 10/5 Scratch/Dig per MIL-O-13830B
Flatness λ/10 at 633 nm
Clear Aperture   > Central 90%
Parallelism < 10 arc sec.
Intrinsic Loss < 0.1% cm-1

Standard coatings:

AR/AR coating:
First surface S1: AR@1064nm(R<0.1%), HT@808nm(T>95%);
Second surface S2: AR@1064nm

HR/AR coating:
First surface S1: HR@1064nm(R>99.8%)
, HT@808nm(T>95%);
Second surface S2: AR@1064nm  

Crystal holders:

Crystal holders with or without water fittings can be manufactured to be compatible with the customer lasers. Indium foil can be supplied for crystal wrapping.


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