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LN and MgO:LN Crystals

LN and MgO:LN Crystals
LN and MgO:LN Crystals LN and MgO:LN Crystals

LN (LiNbO3, Lithium Niobate) crystal is one of the most thoroughly characterized nonlinear optical materials and suitable for a variety of frequency conversion applications. Crystal growing techniques allows consistent production of large and high optical quality crystals. Pure LN has a low threshold for photorefractive effect, therefore MgO (5% typical) doped LN (MgO:LN) was developed to increase the photorefractive damage threshold making it more useful for nonlinear frequncy conversions.

Newlight Photonics offers both pure LN and MgO doped LN crystals for second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), different frequency generation (DFG) , or optical parametric generation (OPA), especially those involving infrared light in the range of ~ 1 - 4 μm. 


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Basic Properties of pure LiNbO3:

Crystal Structure Trigonal, Space group R3C, Point group 3m
Cell Parameters a=5.148 Å , c=13.863 Å
Melting Point 1253oC
Curie Temperature 1140oC
Mohs Hardness 5
Density: 4.64 g/cm3
Specific Heat: 0.59 J/g/K
Optical Homogeneity ~ 5x10-5 /cm
Transparency Range 420 -- 5200 nm
Absorption Coefficient ~0.1% /cm @ 1064 nm
Refractive indices at 1064 nm
(Pure LN)
ne= 2.146, no = 2.220 @ 1300 nm
ne = 2.156, no = 2.232 @ 1064 nm
ne = 2.203, no = 2.286 @ 632.8 nm
Thermal Expansion Coefficient
(@ 25 oC)
//a, 2.0x10-6 /K
//c, 16.7x10-6 /K
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient: ~ 5 W/m/K at 250oC
Thermal Optical Coefficient dno/dT=-0.874x10-6/K at 1.4 µm
dne/dT=39.073x10-6/K at 1.4 µm
The Sellmeier equations (Pure LN))
 (λ in µm)
no2 = 4.9048+0.11768/(λ2-0.04750)-0.027169λ2
ne2 = 4.5820+0.099169/(λ2-0.04443)-0.021950λ2

Nonlinear Optical Properties:

NLO Coefficients d33 = 34.4 pm/V
d31 = d15 = 5.95 pm/V
d22 = 3.07 pm/V
Effective NLO coefficients deff =5.7 pm/V  for frequency doubling 1300 nm;
deff =5.3 pm/V  for OPO pumped at 1064 nm;
deff =17.6 pm/V  for quasi-phase-matched structure.
Electro-Optic Coefficients γT33 = 32 pm/V,  γs33 = 31 pm/V,
γT31 = 10 pm/V,  γs31 = 8.6 pm/V,
γT22 = 6.8 pm/V, γs22 = 3.4 pm/V,
Photorefractive Damage Threshold 50 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)
Surface Damage Threshold 300 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)

MgO doped LiNbO3 (MgO:LN) has similar linear and nonlinear optical properties to pure LiNbO3, but the photorefractive damage threshold is much higher.

The Sellmeier equations of MgO:LN  are:

MgO dopant 5 mol%

no2 = 4.9017+0.112280/(λ2-0.049656)-0.039636λ2
ne2 = 4.5583+0.091806/(λ2-0.048086)-0.032068λ2

MgO dopant 7 mol%

no2 = 4.8762+0.11554/(λ2-0.04674)-0.033119λ2
ne2 = 4.5469+0.094779/(λ2-0.04439)-0.026721λ2

Specifications of LN, MgO:LN components:

Wavefront distortion: less than λ/6 @ 633 nm 
Dimension tolerance: (W +/- 0.1 mm) x (H +/- 0.1 mm) x (L + 0.2/-0.1mm) 
Clear aperture: > 90% central area 
Flatness: λ/8 @ 633 nm 
Surface Quality: Scratch/dig 20/10 per MIL-O-13830A 
Parallelism: better than 20 arc seconds 
Perpendicularity: 5 arc minutes
Angle tolerance: Δθ < +/-0.25o, Δφ < +/-0.25o




Typically LN, MgO:LN crystals are supplied uncoated. AR coatings are available upon request.


For customer convenience and protection of crystals,  crystals with T≤ 3.0 mm can be
mounted in a 1" anodized aluminum holder.

Thicker crystals are typically supplied unmounted, but water-cooled or uncooled mounts can be offered upon request.



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