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LN for EO

LN for EO
LN for EO

With its large electro-optic coefficients, wide optical transparency window, and availability of high optical quality crystals, LN (lithium niobate) crystal is often the material of choice for optical modulation and Q-switch at near-infrared and infrared wavelengths. For electro-optic modulators (EOM) the crystal can be z-cut with zero residual birefringence along the direction of light propagation or x-cut with non-zero residual birefringence and the maximized effective electro-optic coefficient.  For Q-switch the crystal is typically z-cut with zero residual birefringence and an electric field is applied transverse to the direction of light propagation. The piezoelectric ringing in LN is a disadvantage at high repetition frequency, but can be overcome to some extent with proper piezoelectrically damped designs.

Both pure LN and MgO doped LN (MgO:LN) crystals with gold coatings on side faces for electrodes are available from Newlight Photonics.

 

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Basic Properties of pure LiNbO3:
 

Crystal Structure Trigonal, Space group R3C, Point group 3m
Cell Parameters a=5.148 Å , c=13.863 Å
Melting Point 1253oC
Curie Temperature 1140oC
Mohs Hardness 5
Density: 4.64 g/cm3
Specific Heat: 0.59 J/g/K
Optical Homogeneity ~ 5x10-5 /cm
Transparency Range 420 -- 5200 nm
Absorption Coefficient ~0.1% /cm @ 1064 nm
Refractive indices at 1064 nm
(Pure LN)
ne= 2.146, no = 2.220 @ 1300 nm
ne = 2.156, no = 2.232 @ 1064 nm
ne = 2.203, no = 2.286 @ 632.8 nm
Thermal Expansion Coefficient
(@ 25 oC)
//a, 2.0x10-6 /K
//c, 16.7x10-6 /K
Thermal Conductivity: ~ 5 W/m/K at 25oC
Thermal Optical Coefficient dno/dT=-0.874x10-6 /K at 1.4 µm
dne/dT=39.073x10-6 /K at 1.4 µm
The Sellmeier equations (Pure LN))
 (λ in µm)
no2 = 4.9048+0.11768/(λ2-0.04750)-0.027169λ2
ne2 = 4.5820+0.099169/(λ2-0.04443)-0.021950λ2



Nonlinear Optical Properties:
 

NLO Coefficients d33 = 34.4 pm/V
d31 = d15 = 5.95 pm/V
d22 = 3.07 pm/V
Effective NLO coefficients deff =5.7 pm/V  for frequency doubling 1300 nm;
deff =5.3 pm/V  for OPO pumped at 1064 nm;
deff =17.6 pm/V  for quasi-phase-matched structure.
Electro-Optic Coefficients γT33 = 32 pm/V,  γs33 = 31 pm/V,
γT31 = 10 pm/V,  γs31 = 8.6 pm/V,
γT22 = 6.8 pm/V, γs22 = 3.4 pm/V,
Photorefractive Damage Threshold 50 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)
Surface Damage Threshold 300 MW/cm2 (10 ns, 1064 nm)



MgO doped LiNbO3 (MgO:LN) has similar linear and nonlinear optical properties to pure LiNbO3, but the photorefractive damage threshold is much higher.

The Sellmeier equations of MgO:LN  are:

MgO dopant 5 mol%

no2 = 4.9017+0.112280/(λ2-0.049656)-0.039636λ2
ne2 = 4.5583+0.091806/(λ2-0.048086)-0.032068λ2

MgO dopant 7 mol%

no2 = 4.8762+0.11554/(λ2-0.04674)-0.033119λ2
ne2 = 4.5469+0.094779/(λ2-0.04439)-0.026721λ2
 


Specifications of LN EO components:
 

Wavefront Distortion: Less than λ/8  @ 633 nm
Dimension Tolerance:  (W+/-0.1 mm) x (H+/-0.1 mm) x (L+0.5/-0.1 mm)
Clear Aperture: > 90% central area
Flatness: λ/8 @ 633 nm
Surface Quality:  Scratch/Dig 10/5 per MIL-O-13830A
Parallelism:     better than 20 arc seconds
Perpendicularity:      5 arc minutes
Angle Tolerance:      Δθ < 0.5o, Δφ < 0.5o

 

Orientations:

Optical modulation: z-cut crystal with the two X side faces Au coated,
                        or, x-cut crystal with the two Z side faces Au coated.


​Q-Switch: z-cut crystal with the two X side faces Au coated.

Coatings:

Uncoated crystals or crystals with high quality AR coatings are available upon request.

AR Coatings: R < 0.3% at the central wavelength,
Broadband AR: R < 1% over the specified range.


Half Wavelength Voltages for Q-Switch
:
 

Part No.

Description

Vπ (kV)

EOL9250Z-AR1064 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 9x9x25 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm, x-faces Au coated for electrodes 2.7
EOL6250Z-AR1064 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 6x6x25 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm, x-faces Au coated for electrodes 1.8
EOL3100Z-AR1064 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x10 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  2.3
EOL3200Z-AR1064 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x20 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  1.2
EOL3300Z-AR1064 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x30 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  0.8
EOL3100Z-AR1550 LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x10 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1550 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  3.4
EOML9250Z-AR1064 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 9x9x25 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm, x-faces Au coated for electrodes 2.7
EOML6250Z-AR1064 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 6x6x25 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm, x-faces Au coated for electrodes 1.8
EOML3100Z-AR1064 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x10 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  2.3
EOML3200Z-AR1064 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x20 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  1.2
EOML3300Z-AR1064 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x30 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1064 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  0.8
EOML3100Z-AR1550 MgO:LN crystal for E-O application, z-cut, size 3x3x10 mm, z-faces AR coated @ 1550 nm,  x-faces Au coated for electrodes  3.4

 

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